Table 2. Changes in livelihood portfolios (n = 63).

Livelihood Activity % of HH participating
– Before
% of HH participating
– After
% of HH experiencing a decrease in activity’s contribution to livelihood since plantation establishment
1. Agriculture 100 87 73
2. Forest Products 97 89 98
3. Livestock 21 29 0
4. Off-farm 3 10 0