Table 1. Summary of generalized linear model results. Shown are environmental variables that explained the temporal dynamics of different species groups (associated with canonical axes 1 and 2, respectively) revealed by time series modeling of invertebrates and phytoplankton. Degrees of freedom (df), F-ratios, and significance levels for each variable are given in parentheses (* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001). Abbreviations: TP, total phosphorus;, TOC, total organic carbon; Temp, temperature; SO4, sulfate concentration; NAO, North Atlantic Oscillation winter index; Ns, generalized linear model not significant; and ---, no significant temporal structure revealed by time series modeling.



Invertebrates (df 19) Phytoplankton (df 15)
Lakes First species group Second species group First species group Second species group
Mäsen -SO4 (30.7***) Ns --- ---
Stora Skärsjön -SO4 (53.8***) Ns -SO4 (18.6***) Ns
Brännträsket -SO4 (30.5***) Ns TP (6.1*)
TOC (7.1*)
SO4 (17.6**)
Fräcksjön -SO4 (63.1***) Ns -SO4 (5.9*) SO4 (11.4**)
TOC (13.5**)
Stensjön -SO4 (19.8***) Ns -NAO (5.5*) Temp (8.2*)
TOC (6.0*)
Tväringen -SO4 (31.6***) Ns TOC (7.5*) SO4 (23.6***)
Temp (7.3*)
Skärgölen -SO4 (20.7***) SO4 (6.6*)
Temp (5.4*)
-SO4 (69.4***)
-NAO (5.9*)
Ns
Remmarsjön -SO4 (9.5**)
-NAO (12.6**)
Ns -SO4 (23.5***)
TOC (7.7*)
---
Stora Envättern -SO4 (22.7***)
-NAO (18.4***)
SO4 (5.8*) -NAO (15.4**)
TOC (16.7**)
SO4 (9.0**)
Jutsajaure -SO4 (5.2*)
-NAO (10.5**)
SO4 (5.7*) -SO4 (17.0**)
Temp (7.1*)
TOC (15.3**)
Fiolen -SO4 (46.8***)
-NAO (7.3*)
Ns Ns Ns
Allgjuttern -SO4 (100.4***)
Temp (5.0*)
Ns -SO4 (53.1***) Ns
Abiskojaure TP (12.6**) SO4 (53.1***) --- ---
Humsjön -NAO (6.2*)
TOC (4.7*)
SO4 (10.3**) -SO4 (31.0***) TP (4.9*)
Stor Tjulträsket -NAO (4.8*) Ns Ns ---
Brunnsjön -SO4 (26.6***) Ns -SO4 (46.2***) Ns
Bysjön -SO4 (39.1***) Ns --- ---
Hagasjön -SO4 (20.0***) Ns -SO4 (20.3***)
TOC (7.4*)
Ns
Harasjön -SO4 (62.3***) Ns -SO4 (11.3**)
TOC (6.7*)
Ns
Sännen -SO4 (30.6***) Ns --- ---
Övre Skärsjön -SO4 (51.8***) Ns --- ---
Grissjön -SO4 (43.8***) TP (15.4**) -SO4 (40.6***) Temp (7.7*)
Storasjö -SO4 (72.9***) TP (8.5**) Ns SO4 (5.0*)
Rotehogstjärnen -SO4 (25.8***)
-NAO (19.4***)
Ns --- ---
Älgarydssjön -SO4 (29.0***)
-NAO (19.8***)
TP (9.7**) -SO4 (33.8***) Ns
Härsvatten -SO4 (9.4**)
-NAO (13.5**)
SO4 (17.8***)
Temp (15.2*)
--- ---