Fig. 1. Time course featuring the relationship between economic security policies, harvest rates, reindeer abundances, and carcass mass. Dashed vertical lines indicate major policy shifts. The postwar period was characterized by economic deprivation. Welfare policies started in the 1960s, but the big push was initiated with the first General Agreement for the Reindeer Industry in 1976. Sustainability measures were introduced in 1989, and the subsequent period has been characterized by ex ante and ex post policies toward environmental risks. (a) Reindeer abundance (herd size in spring before calving) and carcass mass. (b) Reindeer abundance and percent annual harvest (animals slaughtered in percent of herd size before calving). (c,d) Operating costs (blue) dominate in the big push period. Production subsidies and preventive measures (red) work mainly ex ante, whereas compensations work ex post (green). (c) Total disbursement in USD (adjusted according to the 2008 CPI). (d) Time period for disbursement of the different subsidies and compensations (see Appendix 1 for detailed descriptions of time period, requirements, and quality of the data).

Fig. 1