Table 1. Overview of research sites

Country Site Vegetation Type Business Model(s) Stakeholder Groups Consulted
Brazil Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta Humid tropical forest (Amazon biome) Industrial-scale plantations
Independent growers
Employees
Independent growers
Other affected households
Santarém Humid tropical forest (Amazon biome) Industrial-scale plantations
Independent growers
Employees
Independent growers
Other affected households
Sorriso Dry forest (Cerrado biome) Industrial-scale plantations
Independent growers
Employees
Independent growers
Other affected households
Ghana Pru District, Brong Ahafo Forest-savannah transition zone Industrial-scale plantations Employees
Land losing households (customary rights holders and recent migrants)
Indonesia Boven Digoel, Papua Humid tropical forest (mineral soils) Hybrid (industrial-scale plantation + outgrowers) Employees, Land losing households, Other affected households
Manokwari, Papua Humid tropical forest (mineral soils) Hybrid (industrial-scale plantation + outgrowers) All groups
West Kalimantan Humid tropical forest (peat swamp) Hybrid (industrial-scale plantation + outgrowers) All groups
Malaysia Beluran District, Sabah Humid tropical forest Industrial-scale plantation
Independent growers
Employees
Independent growers
Affected neighbors
Mexico Chiapas Secondary dry forest (acahual) Outgrower scheme Outgrowers
Michoacán Outgrower scheme Outgrowers
Yucatán Industrial-scale plantation N/A (environmental impact focus)
Zambia Northern Province Miombo woodland Outgrower scheme Outgrowers (with and without NGO support)