Table 2. Hourly human activity at the peak negative derivative. ‘Peak derivative level’ represents the greatest rate of negative change in probability of use of locations within listed distances-to-trails/roads. Distance-to-trail/road categories that did not have negative derivatives were not included. † = Derivative was continuously negative. N/A = Not applicable.

Species Human Activity Type Distance from Trail or Road (m) Peak Negative Derivative Level Hourly Human Activity Level at Peak Negative Derivative Hourly Human Activity Level When Species Began Avoidance
Elk Trail 0-50 -0.05116 < 1
51-200 -0.00477 8 1
201-400 -0.00463 10 2
401-600 -0.00355 45 12
601-800 -0.00345 45 12
Wolves Trail 0-50 -0.01540 < 1 N/A
51-200 -0.00639 8 N/A
201-400 -0.00540 10 N/A
Road 0-50 -0.00026 25 N/A
51-200 -0.00008 700 N/A
201-400 -0.00001 1500 N/A