Table 1. Likelihood ratio test and P-value (significance at < 0.05) results of distance-to-trail/road categorical variable and distance-to-trail/road*hourly trail/road activity categorical interaction variable using nested models for each species. Mean Spearmanís rho and P-value of 5-fold cross validation tests performed on models with significant interaction variables.

Trails Roads
Explanatory Variable Wolf Elk Wolf Elk
L-R Test of Distance χ² 33.92 58.88 28.00 9.23
P < 0.000 < 0.000 < 0.000 0.100
             
L-R Test of Distance * Activity χ² 12.39 44.63 17.18 11.25
P 0.030 < 0.000 0.004 0.047
             
K-fold Cross Validation of Model µ rho 0.971 0.905 0.959 0.314
µ P < 0.000 0.002 < 0.000 0.396