APPENDIX 1. Model results. * = reference category.

Table A1.1. Model results for wolves and trails. Results predict wolf occurrence near trails using matched case-control logistic regression.
Variable Coeff. Robust SE z P-value
Cover -0.084 0.036 -2.29 0.022
Elevation -0.002 <0.001 -15.32 <0.001
Slope -0.041 0.002 -16.94 <0.001
Trail Activity 0.001 0.003 0.38 0.705
0-50 m 0.320 0.079 4.07 <0.001
51-200 m 0.233 0.062 3.75 <0.001
201-400 m 0.226 0.060 3.77 <0.001
401-600 m 0.017 0.061 0.28 0.779
601-800 m 0.039 0.063 0.63 0.531
>800 m * * * *
0-50 m*Trail Activity -0.129 0.062 -2.08 0.037
51-200 m*Trail Activity -0.079 0.040 -1.98 0.048
201-400 m*Trail Activity -0.067 0.033 -2.03 0.042
401-600 m*Trail Activity 0.005 0.011 0.44 0.658
601-800 m*Trail Activity 0.003 0.003 0.80 0.424
>800 m*Trail Activity * * * *
Table A1.2. Model results for wolves near roads. Results predict wolf occurrence near roads using matched case-control logistic regression.
Variable Coeff. Robust SE z P-value
Cover -0.091 0.042 -2.18 0.029
Elevation -0.002 <0.001 -12.58 <0.001
Slope -0.048 0.003 -17.02 <0.001
Road Activity 0.004 <0.001 4.89 <0.001
0-50 m 0.279 0.144 1.94 0.052
51-200 m 0.418 0.112 3.74 <0.001
201-400 m 0.355 0.107 3.31 0.001
401-600 m 0.182 0.120 1.51 0.130
601-800 m 0.060 0.143 0.42 0.677
>800 m * * * *
0-50 m*Road Activity -0.002 0.001 -2.94 0.003
51-200 m*Road Activity -0.001 <0.001 -1.96 0.049
201-400 m*Road Activity <0.001 <0.001 -0.81 0.418
401-600 m*Road Activity <0.001 <0.001 -0.32 0.747
601-800 m*Road Activity <0.001 <0.001 -0.50 0.617
>800 m*Road Activity * * * *
Table A1.3. Model results for elk near trails. Results predict elk occurrence near trails using matched case-control logistic regression.
Variable Coeff. Robust SE z P-value
Elevation <-0.001 <0.001 -0.52 0.605
Slope -0.018 0.003 -5.34 <0.001
Greenness 0.168 0.023 7.35 <0.001
Trail Activity 0.026 0.019 1.36 0.173
0-50 m 0.229 0.391 0.59 0.558
51-200 m -0.142 0.196 -0.72 0.471
201-400 m 0.027 0.121 0.22 0.822
401-600 m 0.362 0.117 3.10 0.002
601-800 m 0.324 0.113 2.86 0.004
>800 m * * * *
0-50 m*Trail Activity -0.350 0.277 -1.26 0.206
51-200 m*Trail Activity -0.091 0.050 -1.78 0.075
201-400 m*Trail Activity -0.071 0.030 -2.37 0.018
401-600 m*Trail Activity -0.028 0.029 -0.98 0.329
601-800 m*Trail Activity -0.033 0.016 -2.03 0.042
>800 m*Trail Activity * * * *
Table A1.4 . Model results for elk near roads. Results predict elk occurrence near roads using matched case-control logistic regression.
Variable Coeff. Robust SE z P-value
Elevation -0.002 <0.001 -5.71 <0.001
Slope 0.001 0.005 0.11 0.916
Greenness 0.211 0.026 8.11 <0.001
Road Activity -0.001 0.001 -1.80 0.071
0-50 m 0.103 0.219 0.47 0.637
51-200 m 0.017 0.138 0.12 0.903
201-400 m 0.153 0.126 1.22 0.223
401-600 m 0.100 0.118 0.84 0.400
601-800 m 0.228 0.106 2.16 0.031
>800 m * * * *
0-50 m*Road Activity -0.006 0.002 -2.53 0.011
51-200 m*Road Activity -0.001 0.001 1.26 0.208
201-400 m*Road Activity <-0.001 0.001 -0.02 0.988
401-600 m*Road Activity <0.001 0.001 0.16 0.870
601-800 m*Road Activity <-0.001 0.001 -0.28 0.779
>800 m*Road Activity * * * *
Table A1.5. Model results for wolves on trails. Results predict wolf occurrence near trails using matched case-control logistic regression and 0-50 m as the reference category.
Variable Coeff. Robust SE z P-value
Cover -0.084 0.036 -2.29 0.022
Elevation -0.002 <0.001 -15.32 <0.001
Slope -0.041 0.002 -16.94 <0.001
Trail Activity -0.127 0.061 -2.06 0.039
0-50 m * * * *
51-200 m -0.086 0.066 -1.31 0.192
201-400 m -0.094 0.073 -1.29 0.198
401-600 m -0.302 0.081 -3.76 <0.001
601-800 m -0.281 0.086 -3.25 0.001
>800 m -0.320 0.079 -4.07 <0.001
0-50 m*Trail Activity * * * *
51-200 m*Trail Activity 0.049 0.063 0.78 0.433
201-400 m*Trail Activity 0.061 0.066 0.93 0.355
401-600 m*Trail Activity 0.134 0.063 2.13 0.034
601-800 m*Trail Activity 0.131 0.062 2.12 0.034
>800 m*Trail Activity 0.129 0.062 2.08 0.037