Table 2. Probit models with and without clustering by tenure and management regimes (coffee plantations, reserved forest, national park) explain factors that are associated with the attitudes toward reserved forests (N = 247). Coefficients represent change in marginal probability and + or - sign shows direction of association. Asterisks denote level of significance: * at 10%; ** at 5%; *** at 1%. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. Parameter pseudo R2 is a measure of goodness of fit.

With clustering No clustering
Dependent variable
Attitudes toward reserved forests
Independent Variables
Knowledge about Forest Rights Act [H1] 0.054 (0.030)* 0.054 (0.029)*
Attitudes toward Karnataka Forest Department [H2]:
0 (not happy at all)
1 (not very happy)
2 (indifferent)
3 (a little happy)
-0.160 (0.067)***
-0.163 (0.102)**
-0.125 (0.086)**
-0.045 (0.048)
-0.160 (0.074)***
-0.163 (0.111)**
-0.125 (0.082)**
-0.045 (0.046)
Participation in Forest Management Groups [H3] -0.049 (0.007)*** -0.049 (0.053)
Control variables
Individual
level
Age
Education
Tribal origin
Gender
-0.001 (< 0.0001)**
0.020 (0.021)
-0.036 (0.022)
-0.004 (0.028)
-0.001 (0.001)*
0.020 (0.016)
-0.036 (0.029)
-0.004 (0.024)
Household
level
Household size
Average income for two weeks period
Ownership of durables
Access to land for cultivation
Livestock ownership
0.012 (0.006)*
-0.004 (0.004)
0.009 (0.005)*
0.005 (0.006)
-0.00004 (< 0.0001)***
0.012 (0.006)**
-0.004 (0.004)
0.009 (0.005)
0.005 (0.005)
-0.00004 (< 0.0001)***
Community
level
Community distance to a forest
1 (Inside)
2 (On the boarder)
0.033 (0.039)
0.052 (0.008)***
0.033 (0.057)
0.052 (0.023)
N = 247 Pseudo R² = 0.2707 Pseudo R² = 0.2707