Table 1. Summary statistics of the variables included in the multivariate regression analysis (N = 247). Frequency distributions are listed for all the variables. For the attitudes toward reserved forests (dependent variable), Forest Rights Act knowledge, attitudes toward Karnataka Forest Department, and participation in forest management groups (independent variables) table shows comparisons within three land tenure and management regimes analyzed by likelihood-ratio chi2 tests (G2). Asterisks denote statistically significant relation * at 10%; ** at 5%; *** at 1%.

Land tenure and management regimes
Variable name Variable description Total sample Coffee plantations Reserved Forests National Park
N=247 N=69 (27.94%) N=133 (53.85%) N=45 (18.22%)
Attitudes toward reserved forest Respondent likes reserved forest 89% 94% 87% 89%
           
Knowledge about Forest Rights Act No knowledge (0) 81.38% 92.75% 77.44% 75.76%
One right (1) 5.67% 1.45% 7.52% 6.67%
More than one right (2) 12.96% 5.80**% 15.04% 17.78**%
           
Attitudes toward Karnataka Forest Department Not happy at all (0) 20.24% 14.49% 14.29% 46.67%
Not very happy (1) 8.10% 4.35% 7.52% 15.56%
Indifferent (2) 10.93% 8.70% 9.77% 17.78%
A little happy (3) 18.22% 18.84% 21.80% 6.67%
Very happy (4) 42.51% 53.62% 46.62***% 13.33***%
           
Participation in Forest Management Groups Respondent participates in FMG 14% 0*** 24%*** 4%*
           
Age In years 37.98(±15.30) 37.06 (±14.46) 38.38 (±15.80) 37.24 (±15.24)
           
Education No formal
education (0)
48.99% 42.86% 45.11% 67.39%
1 to 4 grades (1) 17.00% 24.29% 15.04% 13.04%
5 to 11 grades (2) 32.39% 28.57% 39.10% 19.57%
12 grades (3) 1.62% 4.29% 0.75% 0.00%
           
Tribal origin Respondent belongs to Scheduled Tribe 90% 75% 94% 100%
           
Gender Male (1) /
Female (0)
0.59 (± 0.49) 0.48 (±0.50) 0.67 (±0.47) 0.51 (±0.51)
           
Household size Number of heads 5.00 (± 2.35) 4.54 (±1.93) 5.35 (±2.68) 4.69 (±1.66)
           
Average income for two week period In thousand Indian Rupees = 22 US$ 3.39 (± 2.79) 3.56 (±2.58) 3.14 (±2.66) 3.84 (±3.41)
           
Ownership of durables - motorbikes and mobiles In thousand Indian Rupees 1.24 (± 3.29) 1.84 (±3.79) 1.24 (±3.50) 0.35 (±0.75)
           
Access to land for cultivation In acres 1.66 (± 2.17) 0.58 (±1.14) 2.07 (±2.25) 2.13 (±2.57)
           
Livestock ownership: chickens, goats, pigs, and cows Average bodyweight in kg 318.54
(± 909.80)
43.36
(±167.68)
466.12 (±1111.99) 304.21 (±830.62)
           
Community distance to a forest Inside (1) 71.66% 49.28% 96.24% 33.33%
On border (2) 14.17% 0.00% 3.76% 66.67%
More than 1 km away (3) 14.17% 50.72% 0.00% 0.00%
Note: To determine differences within dependent and independent variables under three land tenure and management regimes we ran likelihood-ratio chi² tests comparing two by two data subsets. There are no significant differences within attitudes toward reserved forests under different land tenure and management regimes.