Fig. 4. Tree cover trends estimated as changes in tree density (unit = percent of precolonial tree cover): landscape dynamics in southwest Zinder. Remote sensing imagery courtesy of Dr. G. Tappan (Tappan and Cushing 2004, 2008). Scale is 1:5000. The 1975 aerial photos (1:50 000) were zoomed in to the specific terroir shown. Note: the emergence of a large village and severe shrinking of a wet area east of it may suggest that the 2005 image is of a different area, but all three images cover the identical geographical location.