Table 2. Between groups analysis of means. Mean values of indicators per quadrant, and in parentheses the other quadrants from which means significantly differ according to T-tests. On the right, total means of these variables. p ≤ 0.1*, p ≤ 0.05**, p ≤ 0.01*** Statistical software: R for statistical computing version 2.8.0 (2008).

Growth (Q1),
N = 80
Intensifying (Q2),
N = 65
Decline (Q3),
N = 10
Expansion (Q4),
N = 18
All,
N = 173
Governance indicators
Voice and accountability -0.25 (Q2***) 0.32 (Q1***, Q4*) -0.02 -0.14 (Q2*) -0.01
Government effectiveness -0.25 (Q2***) 0.43 (Q1***, Q4***) -0.22 -0.38 (Q2***) -0.001
Regulatory quality -0.26 (Q2***) 0.41 (Q1***, Q4***) -0.11 -0.45 (Q2***) -0.01
Rule of law -0.23 (Q2***) 0.34 (Q1***, Q4*) -0.26 -0.18 (Q2*) -0.01
Political stability -0.19 (Q2*, Q3**) 0.08 (Q1*) 0.27 (Q1**) 0.00 -0.04
Control of corruption -0.25 (Q2***) 0.4 (Q1***, Q4**) -0.27 -0.18 (Q2**) 0.01
           
Control indicators
Economic
Change in agricultural export value index 0.53 0.51 0.04 0.07 0.44
Initial agricultural export value index (share of total export value) 237.46 113.47 (Q4*) 175.50 286.39 (Q2*) 187.89
Change in agricultural import value index 0.77 (Q3*) 0.73 0.61 (Q1*) 0.70 0.74
Initial agricultural import value index (share of total import value) 44.50 44.08 63.48 51.41 46.38
Change in net trade flow value (export minus import) -0.08 (Q4**) -0.14 (Q4*) -0.28 -0.51 (Q1**, Q2*) -0.16
Initial net trade flow value (export minus import) (share of total value) 182.20 69.39 (Q4*) 112.02 234.97 (Q2*) 137.92
Change in GDP (PPP) 0.57 (Q2***) 0.7 (Q1***) 0.72 0.46 0.62
Initial GDP (PPP) (International $/capita/yr) 2880.80 (Q4***) 4006.30 (Q4***) 2678.10 907 (Q1***, Q2***) 3275.40
Change in economically active agricultural population 0.11 (Q2***) -0.15 (Q1***, Q4***) -0.10 0.16 (Q2***) 0.01
Initial economically active agricultural population (share of total) 0.51 (Q2***, Q3**) 0.32 (Q1***, Q4***) 0.36 (Q1**, Q4**) 0.55 (Q2***, Q3**) 0.43
           
Demographic
Change in total population 0.32 (Q2***) 0.18 (Q1***) 0.17 0.26 0.25
Initial total population density (persons/Km2) 79 (Q2*) 176 (Q1*, Q3*, Q4*) 80 (Q2*) 82 (Q2*) 116
Change in total economically active population 0.33 (Q2***) 0.21 (Q1***, Q4*) 0.22 0.28 (Q2*) 0.27
Initial economically active population (share of total) 0.39 (Q4**) 0.40 (Q4**) 0.38 0.36 (Q1**, Q2**) 0.39
Change in urban population 0.19 (Q2***, Q3***) 0.11 (Q1***) 0.07 (Q1***, Q4***) 0.23 (Q3***) 0.16
Initial urban population (share of total) 0.39 (Q2***) 0.54 (Q1***, Q4***) 0.47 (Q4*) 0.32 (Q2***, Q3*) 0.44
Change in rural population -0.17 (Q3*) -0.16 -0.10 (Q1*) -0.14 -0.16
Initial rural population (share of total) 0.61 (Q2***) 0.46 (Q1***, Q4***) 0.53 (Q4*) 0.68 (Q2***, Q3*) 0.56
           
Biophysical
Annual mean temperature (°C) 22.80 (Q2***) 17.60 (Q1***, Q4***) 20.40 24.10 (Q2***) 20.80
Annual precipitation (mm) 1361.60 1140.00 1475.70 1273.50 1274.20
Fraction of area constrained by aluminum toxicity 22.30 (Q2**) 14.60 (Q1**) 25.50 19.90 19.20
Fraction of area constrained by salinity 4.20 (Q2**) 1.70 (Q1**) 3 1.30 3
Fraction of area constrained by high phosphorus fixation 6 (Q2***) 2 (Q1***) 9.20 6.40 4.50