Table 2. Metrics that represent average (and standard error) responses across the six study areas for simulated households corresponding to the 184 for which survey data were available. Values given are: the base simulation (Base), when access to the Chyulu Hills was lost without compensation (No access), and when access was lost but households in ranches neighboring the Chyulu Hills were compensated (Leased).


Osilalei Eselenkei Linkisim Emeshenani N. Imbirikani S. Imbirikani
Net income Base 1160 1749 1856 390 3196 1286
(KSh/month) No access +2.6 (61.1) +3.4 (12.4) -67.7 (18.7)** +9.1 (19.6)* -61.6 (37.1)** -24.6 (42.5)
Leased -0.4 (61.4) 9.6 (12.6)* -72.4 (18.9)** 9.7 (20.1) 2166.2 (36.1)** 1880 (48.7)**
Cattle Base 755 1297 2516 6777 1635 934
(total number) No access 3 (19) -110 (29)** -410 (76)** -309 (184) -420 (46)** -97 (23)**
Leased -30 (20) -102 (30)** -163 (96) 65 (149) 818 (89)** 1339 (64)**
Goats Base 534 835 501 1110 3617 1467
(total number) No access 7 (24) -101 (36)* 7 (12) -357 (86)** -1002 (182)** -381 (114)
Leased 5 (26) -27 (49) 17 (12) -224 (90) 341 (179) 1570 (170)**
Sheep Base 499 988 454 1186 3815 1462
(total number) No access 12 (10) 93 (33)* 1 (7) -59 (36) -181 (95) -112 (40)*
Leased 14 (10) 97 (34)* 6 (6) -23 (33) 939 (126)** 1541 (73)**
Cattle sold Base 3.13 2.63 4.13 5.43 2.90 6.43
(total/month) No access 0.02 (0.26) -0.04 (0.20) 0.14 (0.26)** -0.40 (0.33)** 0.28 (0.22)** 0 (0.34)
Leased 0.04 (0.26) -0.04 (0.20) 0.12 (0.26)* -0.48 (0.32)** -1.67 (0.09)** -4.11 (0.20)**
Cattle bought Base 3.23 7.21 5.60 1.01 11.88 6.78
(total/month) No access 0.04 (0.14) 0.03 (0.25) -0.14 (0.21)** 0.00 (0.01) -0.20 (0.31)** -0.23 (0.26)**
Leased 0.04 (0.14) 0.02 (0.24) -0.18 (0.21)** 0.00 (0.01) 7.85 (0.32)** 8.75 (0.38)**
Cattle gifted Base 8.17 18.91 20.60 10.58 9.89 9.83
(total/month) No access -0.02 (1.78) 0.76 (2.40)** -1.55 (3.27) 3.13 (3.71)** -0.59 (1.47) -0.76 (1.36)**
Leased -0.20 (1.76) 0.52 (2.30) -4.92 (2.73)** -0.02 (2.22) -3.83 (1.62)** -0.12 (1.86)
Milk energy consumed Base 15763 24212 27850 30009 26233 17142
(kCal/month) No access 90 (329) 135 (330) -752 (296)* 2224 (389)** -3205 (534)** -888 (340)*
Leased -189 (380) 721 (290)* -310 (342) 2184 (416)** 2458 (506)** 5851 (332)**
Meat energy consumed Base 3144 5657 6232 7386 11082 5042
(kCal/month) No access 57 (142) -38 (173) -458 (167)** 756 (224)** -993 (230)** -348 (169)*
Leased -24 (145) 100 (176) -256 (169)** 913 (221)** 1211 (142)** 3078 (142)**
Plant energy consumed Base 0 0 388 336 5937 8478
(kCal/month) No access 0 (0) 0 (0) -1.8 (8.0) -2.0 (6.3) -40.8 (200.5) -79.1 (261.5)
Leased 0 (0) 0 (0) -1.8 (8.0) -2.0 (6.3) -48.0 (183.7) -88.2 (239.2)*
Bought energy consumed Base 47981 59939 63963 65910 64832 56446
(kCal/month) No access 565 (742)* 509 (677)* 531 (759) -531 (800) 3199 (708)** 1461 (996)**
Leased 663 (728)** 120 (657) 212 (746) -829 (777)** -2238 (639)** 585 (793)
Gifted energy consumed Base 12728 11273 9468 11814 2679 12082
(kCal/month) No access -858 (567)** -618 (640) 680 (679)* -2435 (652)** 1029 (208)** -148 (744)
Leased -599 (563) -963 (610)* 355 (669) -2258 (648)** -1347 (12)** -9093 (364)**
Milk energy sold Base 123 133 1500 199 617 960
(kCal/month) No access -14 (11) -5 (6)* -768 (101)** 50 (15)** -132 (44)** -38 (42)
Leased -27 (12) -5 (6)** -873 (107)** 31 (15)* 200 (63)** 1561 (115)**
Plant energy sold Base 337.6 1.0 233.2 202.4 3517.3 5089.4
(kCal/month) No access 61 .2 (123.5)* 0.1 (0.4) -1.0 (5.2) -1.2 (4.8) -25.7 (97.3) -52.0 (137.6)
Leased 61.2 (123.5)* 0.1 (0.4) -1..0 (5.2) -1.2 (4.8) -25.7 (97.3) -52.0 (137.6)
Animal energy sold Base 1379 1421 2164 3394 1326 2762
(kCal/month) No access -74 (120)** 28 (107)** -6 (125) 108 (204)** -3 (92) 16 (149)
Leased -71 (120)** 39 (110)** 10 (126) 122 (205)** -912 (41)** -1593 (92)**


* P ≤ 0.05 when compared to no change from the baseline model (one sample t-test with Bonferroni adjustment).
** P ≤ 0.005 when compared to no change from the baseline model (one sample t-test with Bonferroni adjustment).
Plant energy is consumed, and milk and plant energy sold, in three or fewer months per year, yielding low mean values.