Table 5. Energy balances (GJ/ha) calculated for the production of bioethanol from maize biomass and for the production of pure vegetable oil from sunflower biomass. Legend: PERC = percentile.

MAIZE SUNFLOWER
10th PERC 90th PERC 10th PERC 90th PERC
(GJ/ha) (GJ/ha) (GJ/ha) (GJ/ha)
Cultivation Ploughing
Harrowing
Sowing
Weed Control
Hoeing
Fertilization
Treatments
Harvest
2.80
0.75
0.43
0.16
0.38
0.11
0.11
2.40
2.80
0.75
0.43
0.16
0.38
0.11
0.11
2.40
2.80
0.75
0.43
0.16
0.38
0.11
0.11
1.85
2.80
0.75
0.43
0.16
0.38
0.11
0.11
1.85
Irrigation
System 1
System 2

6.23
7.53

6.49
7.84
0.00


0.00


Feedstocks Seeds
Herbicide
N Fertilizer
P Feertilizer
Pesticide
1.57
0.63
13.20
0.31
0.70
1.57
0.63
13.20
0.31
0.70
0.33
0.63
7.00
0.16
0.00
0.33
0.63
7.00
0.16
0.00
Processing Transformation/Transport 31.00 44.00 4.25 8.16
Total Inputs Required Energy
Required Energy System 1
Required Energy System 2

60.77
57.97

74.03
71.23
18.96


22.87


Total Outputs Usable Energy 54.93 73.40 10.95 20.99
Input/Output Balance
Balance System 1
Balance System 2

-5.84
-3.04

-0.63
2.17
-8.01


-1.88