Table 1. Adaptation of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) classification systems as used to structure our review. Numbering refers to the class numbers used by the authors indicated and by us. Classes from Usher (2000), Houde (2007), and our classification are grouped together in rows to indicate their approximate alignment.

TEK class
(Usher 2000)
TEK class
(Houde 2007)
TEK class
(this review)
Aboriginal seasonal knowledge attributes discussed in this review
Direct application to natural resource management
1. Basic knowledge of the environment 1. Factual observations 1. Basic knowledge of the environment • Abiotic (astronomical, weather, landscape)
• Biotic (plant, animal)
• Links through indicators
2. Knowledge of Aboriginal use of the environment in the present and past 2. Management systems
3. Past and current land uses
2. Knowledge of Aboriginal use and management of the environment • Resource use
• Fire management
• Spatio-temporal variation in hunting and gathering
• Responding to multi-year variations in biotic and abiotic environments
Indirect application to natural resource management
3. Values and ideals 4. Ethics and values • Not explicitly considered in this review
4. Knowledge systems 5. Culture and identity
6. Cosmology
3. Knowledge frameworks • Seasonal frameworks as a vehicle for knowledge recovery, retention, communication, and application
• Links among seasonal environment, cultural practice, and spiritual belief emphasizing the context of TEK
• Holistic nature of indigenous natural resource management reflecting broader cosmology