Table 1. Structural characteristics of the seven farms studied and changes between 1991 and 2005.

Farms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Year 1991 2005 1991 2005 1991 2005 1991 2005 1991 2005 1991 2005 1991 2005
total area (ha) 73 80 181 243 125 170 71 71 119 165 178 305 179 190
grazing area (%) 100% 100% 96% 98% 92% 77% 94% 100% 92% 95% 97% 96% 90% 84%
                             
Forage crops                            
cereals (%) 0% 0% 4% 0% 8% 0% 6% 0% 8% 5% 3% 0% 10% 9%
maize silage (%) 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 0% 7%
                             
Beef products R R R R B B+HR B B B B+HR B+HR B+HR+FM B+HR B+HR
Other products 0 0 0 0 0 maize grain 0 0 0 0 sheep sheep 0 0
                             
beef cows 45 45 145 191 75 89 42 42 92 96 82 128 81 114
                             
SR 0.89 0.81 1.03 1.04 0.83 1.00 0.89 0.86 1.00 0.82 1.01 1.27 0.83 1.09
                             
WU 1.3 1.3 3.0 3.0 1.5 2.0 1.2 1.2 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 2.5
Beef LU/WU 50 50 60 83 64 66 50 51 55 64 56 89 54 69
                             
Beef GM/LU† 925 1576 n.d. n.d. 563 596 n.d. n.d. 668 817 683 724 639 789
Global GM/WU (000 euros)† 66.1 76.3 n.d. n.d. 39.4 44.3 n.d. n.d. 46.7 52.6 60.4 108.2 75.2 61.5

LU: livestock unit
SR: stocking rate (LU/grazing area)
WU: work unit (time devoted to farm work by one person during 1 year)
GM: gross margin (subsidies included)
n.d.: no data values
R: Males and females for reproduction
B: calf sold just after weaning (Broutard)
B + HR: B and females for reproduction
B + HR + FM: B + HR and fattened males.
† Euros 2005