Table 2. Descriptive statistics of household characteristics, access to government services, distance variables, and household income sources in Pando and Acre.

Pando, Bolivia Acre, Brazil
Variable N Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) p value
Household characteristics
Size (# people) 125 6.0 (2.8) 51 5.4 (2.9) 0.159
Land area (ha) 125 587 (470) 51 638 (499) 0.519
Head of household born in community 125 0.20 (0.40) 51 0.20 (0.40) 0.670
Time lived in community (yrs) 125 17 (15) 51 15 (11) 0.238
Schooling (cumulative yrs) 125 21.4 (13.7) 51 12.3 (7.7) <0.001
Access to government services
Electricity 125 0.38 (0.49) 51 0.24 (0.43) 0.060
Piped water 125 0 (0) 51 0.18 (0.39) <0.001
Health services 125 0.30 (0.46) 51 0 (0) <0.001
Distance
Road access 125 0.65 (0.48) 51 0.78 (0.42) 0.078
Distance to market from village center† (hrs) 125 9.5 (7.1) 51 2.4 (1.4) <0.001
Distance to Brazil nut stand from household (min) 124 81 (93) 51 6 (4) <0.001
Household income 2006–2007
Total income (USD)
Forest-based income (USD)
Brazil nut income (USD)
107
107
107
5394 (4764); 100%
3423 (3604); 63%
2304 (1837); 43%
47
47
47
5460 (2759); 100%
2319 (1295); 42%
765 (973); 14%
0.930
0.043
<0.001

†In the dispersed settlement in the Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve in Acre, village center was defined as the association hub where community meetings took place.
‡These values include absolute income and percent of total household income.