Table 1. Common Agricultural Policy financial reform scenario: 100% cut of Common Agricultural Policy first pillar measures (market support and direct income support); and re-investment of savings in research and development. Summary of the impacts for environmental indicators in Europe.

Impact issues Indicators Effect of Policy
Air quality Ammonia emission from agriculture Decrease
Nitrogen dioxide emissions No effect
Water quality and resources Nitrogen surplus Decrease
Phosphorus surplus Decrease
Water retention capacity of the soil No effect
Soil quality and resources Soil sealing Mixed effect
Wind erosion Decrease
Climate Methane and nitrous oxide emission Mixed effect
Carbon sequestration Increase
Biodiversity and landscapes Terrestrial habitat eutrophication Decrease
Farmland birds, population trends Mixed effect
Deadwood Mixed effect
Spatial cohesion Increase
Pesticide use Increase
Environmental risks Forest fire risk Increase