Fig. 7. Conceptual model for the Alentejo region showing the casual loops and interlinkages that influence the rate of change of the area converted from a montado to an irrigated system. Fig. 7 Note: Variables marked by rectangles are for indicators that refer to agroecological conditions; diamonds are used to identify socioeconomic factors, and circles refer to formal institutional factors. These three types of variables refer to the three dimensions of vulnerability outlined in the opening editorial of this special issue. “HA converted“ stands for the number of ha of the montado area converted to irrigated area. The symbol (+/-) next to each arrow indicates whether the relation is positive or negative.