Table 2. Matrix indicating interference between various subsurface functions.

Subsurface function ATES BTES§ Geothermal energy Water supply Infra-
structure
Shallow geo-material Deep geo-material CO2 storage Gas storage Water storage
ATES ± + - - + + + +
BTES ± + - + + + + + +
Geothermal energy + + +
Water supply + + + +
Infrastructure ± ± + + + -
Shallow geo-materials + + + -
Deep geo-materials ± ± +
CO2 storage +
Gas storage +
Water storage

Type of interaction: subsurface functions will always conflict (—), subsurface functions have potential to conflict (-), subsurface functions almost never conflict (+),subsurface functions are potentially conflicting, but mutual benefits can be achieved through adequate subsurface planning (±).
Aquifer thermal energy storage.
§Borehole thermal energy system.