Table 4. Individual and institutional adaptive strategies and policies proposed by stakeholders, their scale, and dimension of intervention.


Adaptive strategy Scale Dimension
Harmonize institutional planning responses, integrate participatory decision making processes:

• decentralization, without deregulation, that creates, strengthens, and delegates power and economic responsibility to local organizations and institutions
• private–public partnerships

national–regional–local institutional
Revise international trade policies to improve market access:

• take advantage of existing mechanisms for “local products” and special “safeguard mechanisms” to protect national agricultural sectors
• establish appropriate food stocks to prevent price volatility
• secure access to information and microcredit

national–international political
Mechanisms and funding to support rural investments:

• establish appropriate policies to reduce impacts of food-price inflation
• invest in agriculture in low-potential areas as a social investment
• diversify rural on-farm and off-farm economies
• financial compensation for ecosystem-services protection
• infrastructure investments

national–international political
Strengthen law enforcement for land ownership and rights to natural resources access:

• secure land rights
• ensure land access for disadvantaged groups
• restrict land sales to foreign investors

national political
Reinforce organizations and networks (governance and adaptive comanagement):

• capacity building for communities to achieve self-sustaining projects
• strengthen alliances and coordination between comanagers (FORO Miraflor), communities, landowners, ranchers, trade unions, councils, and academic institutions
• enhance market competitiveness, e.g., construct warehouses for crop and dairy products

local–regional social–institutional
Farmer-to-farmer knowledge exchange and extension:

• share good farming practices through the establishment of model farms, and strengthen capacity to monitor and assess
• exchange native crop varieties through local seed fairs
• join national networks, e.g., Farmer-to-Farmer Program; initiatives such as “Seeds for Identity”
• farm-planning design with ten-year timespan

local–regional–national social–institutional
Innovative agricultural practices:

• switch from monoculture to diversified agriculture: use traditional maize–bean intercropping system, cultivar rotation with green manure or farm-cattle manure
• technological innovation (low energy input) to produce quality dairy products
• equilibrate nutrient flows through integrated management with mixed-farming systems, crop–pasture nutrient management
• improve livestock systems with rotational grazing systems, fodder bank for livestock, fodder tree in paddocks
• support on-farm experiments with rotational livestock and protein banks

local environmental–productive
Dry forest conservation programs:

• reforestation with local species for vulnerable and exposed areas
• planned natural regeneration
• development of management guidelines

local environmental
Water-system technologies:

• small-scale water management solutions, i.e., rainwater harvesting techniques, tanks
• water retention in soil, through innovative agricultural practices

local–regional social–institutional–environmental
Alternative energy sources:

• create communal “energy forest” to supply fuel wood without threatening remaining dry forest
• develop wind power

local–regional–national social–institutional–environmental
Communication plans:

• transfer technical and scientific knowledge to local stakeholders
• coordinate early warning systems and disaster risk programs
• coordinate between comanagers and councils to enhance their prevalence in the area (strengthen the efficacy of local rules)

local social–institutional
Investigate feasibility of ecotourism:

• create and train a tourism commission
local–national social–economic