Table 3. National average electricity use for water collection and treatment using different water treatment technologies (Goldstein and Smith 2002b, California Energy Commission 2005). Distribution represents additional energy use.

Water Collection and Treatment kWh/ML†
Surface water treatment 60
Groundwater treatment 160
Brackish groundwater treatment 1000–2600
Seawater desalination 2600–4400


†kWh/ML: kilowatt-hours per megaliter