Table 3. Probit estimates of user groups' behavior.

Independent Variables New Technology Regeneration Monitoring Conflicts
  Coef. Z Stat. Coef. Z Stat. Coef. Z Stat. Coef. Z Stat.
Resource Characteristics            
Topography dummies (1=flat, ..., 5=steep) 0.4007 2.03** 0.0151 0.07 1.4818 2.17** 0.8365 2.59***
Log of forest size (hectare) 0.0172 0.09 0.1743 1.01 -0.2591 -0.61 0.5548 2.05**
                 
External Enforcement                
Government organizations (#/1,000 hectares) 0.2453 1.97** 0.0875 1.11 0.6722 2.69*** 0.7933 3.29***
Community-based organizations (#/hectares) -0.1507 (-1.78)* -0.0839 -1.54 0.0554 0.29 -0.6093 (-3.98)***
Forest specific organizations (#/hectares) 0.0941 1.34 0.0342 1.22 -0.5809 (-2.45)** 0.0939 2.82***
Private organizations (#/hectares) -0.2342 (-1.78)* -0.0212 -0.43 -0.5974 (-3.35)*** 0.0733 1.22
                 
Internal Enforcement                
dummy, local gov owned forest land (ref=nat. gov) -3.1992 (-2.34)** -1.0713 -1.10 -5.8743 -1.61 . .
dummy, village owned forest land (ref=nat. gov) -1.9432 -0.86 . . 2.6551 1.28 . .
dummy, privately owned forest land (ref.=gov) . . . . 14.2013 3.34*** . .
                 
Forest level governance                
Forest owner have right to harvest product (1=yes) 0.2058 0.34 0.9738 -1.11 -0.0372 -0.04 -1.0486 (-1.72)*
Other group harvest from this forest (1=yes) -0.1484 -0.16 5.2794 (1.95)* . . . .
                 
User groups' characteristics                
Distance to forest (1=within 1km, ..., 4=>10km) 0.6002 1.23 -0.1872 -0.62 -2.9045 (-3.35)*** -0.3997 -0.65
Log of group size (num. of ind.) 0.0525 0.48 0.1832 1.47 -0.1204 (-0.76) 0.0321 0.27
Age of the user group (bt. 10 and 30 years) (ref<=10 yr) 0.5114 0.66 -0.2224 -0.33 -3.1949 (-2.03)** -1.5593 (-1.92)*
Age of the user group (older than 30 yrs) (reg.<=10yrs) 0.0045 0.01 -0.2179 -0.46 0.1181 0.13 -1.9181 (-3.22)***
dummy, user group includes owner of forest (1=yes) 1.6989 1.59 . . . . . .
User groups have right to harvest trees (1=yes) 0.7144 1.27 -0.0427 -0.08 -2.7306 (-2.78)*** 0.3372 0.44
wealth heterogeneity in the user groups (1=yes) 0.1611 0.43 -0.0391 -0.09 6.0515 3.29*** 2.3613 3.68***
                 
Gender factor                
Mixed group dummy (ref=male dominated) -0.7153 -1.29 -0.3018 -0.58 3.0567 3.91*** 0.2498 0.47
Female dominated group dummy (ref=male dom.) -1.2942 (-1.71)* -0.7058 -1.12 . . 1.7102 1.61
Regional fixed effect                
Latin American region dummy (ref=Africa) 3.2633 2.93** 3.2821 4.65*** 4.4039 1.45 0.0653 0.06
                 
Constant -3.9209 (-2.01)** -7.8812 (-2.06)** -2.9687 -1.07    
                 
Number of observation 66 74 56 73
Wald Chi2 50.41 68.45 56.51 57.19
Prob > chi2 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Pseudo R2 0.3662 0.4815 0.6073 0.6296

Note:
(i) ***, **, and * respectively represent significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%.
(ii) Standard errors are robust to heteroskedasticity.
(iii) For the new technology regression, two kinds of internal enforcement (other types of forest land and privately ownership) are not included in the regression because of perfect prediction of explanatory variables.
(iv) For the regeneration regression, three kinds of internal enforcement and forest owner dummy are not included in the regression because of identification problem.
(v) For the monitoring regression, one internal enforcement (other types of ownership), forest owner dummy, dummy of other group's access, and female dominated group dummy are not included in the regression because of the identification problem.
(vi) For the conflict regression, all the internal enforcement dummies, forest owner dummy, and dummy of other group's access are not included in the regression because of identification problem.