Table 2. Descriptive statistics of explanatory variables.

Variable Name Definition Observation Mean Minimum Maximum
Resource characteristics
Size forest size (unit is hectares) 155 3848 20.8 44,900
Topography forest topography 156 3.32 1 5
           
User group characteristics
Distance distance of user groups from forest 156 1.82 1 4
Member size user group size 164 766 6 27,000
Wealth heterogeneity wealth difference 160 0.41 0 1
Female prop. proportion of female members 162 0.37 0 1
Duration years since group formation 135 75 0 599
Including owner user groups including forest owner 161 0.14 0 1
User right user group's right to harvest 142 0.58 0 1
User right of other groups other group's right to harvest 156 0.9 0 1
         
Governance Arrangements
Owned by nat land owner is national govt. 164 0.68 0 1
Owned by loc land owner is local govt. 164 0.08 0 1
Owned by vil land owner is villages 164 0.08 0 1
Owned by other mul. land owner is other multiple owners 164 0.1 0 1
Owned Pri. land owner is private 164 0.05 0 1
Forest Org. forest-specific govt. organizations 126 6.62 0 73
Gov. Org. other govt. organizations 137 4.71 0 87
Com. Org. community-based organizations 126 5.72 0 100
Pri. Org. private organizations 126 4.71 0 87
Owner right Forest owner’s right to harvest 166 0.67 0 1