Table 1. Definition of explanatory variables.

Variable Name Variable Definition
Resource characteristics
Forest size log of forest size (unit of forest size in hectares)
Topography topography of forest land:1=primary flat; 2=mostly flat with some rolling terrain; 3=primarily rolling terrain; 4=mostly rolling terrain with some steep portions; 5=primarily steep
   
User group characteristics
Distance how far away do user groups live from forest: 1=within 1 km; 2= 1 to 5km; 3= 5 to 10km; 4=more than 10 km
Member size log of user groups' size (group size is total number of individuals in a user group)
Wealth heterogeneity dummy, 1=there is large wealth difference among households in the user groups; 0=otherwise
Gender factor: male group Dummy, 1=proportion of female members < 33%
Gender factor: mixed group Dummy, 1=proportion of females 33% to 66%
Gender factor: female group Dummy, 1=proportion of females >66%
Duration of user group three groups: newly formed groups (=<10 years old); mature groups (10-30 years old); old groups (>30 years old)
   
Governance Arrangements
Ownership of the forest land
Owned by national govt. dummy, 1=national govt.; 0=not national govt.
Owned by local govt. dummy, 1=local govt.; 0=not local govt.
Owned by village dummy, 1=villages; 0=not villages
Owned by other multiples dummy, 1=other multiple ownerships; 0=not other ownerships
Owned by private dummy, 1=private ownership; 0=not private ownership
   
External Enforcement
Forest specific organizations total number of forest-specific government organizations in the forest/1000 ha
Government organizations total number of other government organizations in the forest/1000 ha
Community organizations total number of community based organizations in the forest/1000 ha
Private organizations total number of private organizations external to the forest/1000 ha
   
Property rights
Including owner dummy, 1=the user group includes the owner of the forest, if privately owned; 0=otherwise
Owner right dummy, 1=legal owner of the forest has the right harvest forest product; 0=otherwise
User rights dummy, 1=the user group has the right to harvest trees from the forest; 0=otherwise
Use rights of other user groups dummy, 1=other groups harvesting this forest; 0=otherwise
Regional effect—Latin America dummy, 1=Latin America, 0=otherwise
Regional effect—Africa dummy, 1=Africa, 0=otherwise