Table 1. Description and explanation of the uncertainty themes that were analyzed from data collected in stage one with semistructured interviews.

Uncertainty Themes Description of Theme Explanation of Uncertainty
Cultural continuity The ability for the Kuna culture to remain strong and adapt to social changes, recognizing that continuity does not necessarily imply adherence to specific traditional norms. Influences from other cultures as well as people leaving the Comarca and sometimes returning with different cultural influences, community members described as changing how and how many Kuna are engaging their traditional culture. This is particularly strong with youth.
Education system The presence and structure of a system of formal education in the community. Since the Panamanian Government implemented the Education System, community members described changes to their culture and community.
Land use How land is used and to what extent, for example, in farming and hunting. Community members described different ways and intensities for the community to use the land.
Ocean use How the sea is used and to what extent, for example, in lobster fishing and coral extraction. Community members described different ways and intensities for the community to use the ocean and its resources.
Local economy Local economic organization, as well as the manner and degree to which the community chooses to interact with the external market economy. Community members described the economy of their community to have changed a lot in the last 25 years from being focused internally to export, which in turn has greatly changed their community.