Fig. 4. The Hunter River at the Singleton rail bridge in (a) 1861, (b) 1866, (c) 1963, and (d) 2003. Note the ringbarked (dead) trees in (a), the actively eroding bank and lack of instream wood in (b), the expansion of the macrochannel in (c), and the reestablishment of a riparian zone (albeit dominated by exotic Salix spp.) as well as the contraction of the low-flow channel in (d). [Photos (a) through (c) are courtesy the NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water historical photo. Photo (d) is by N. Cook, NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water.]