Fig. 2. Integrative conceptual model identifying ecological, social, and economic system components that influence the oak forest social-ecological system, as identified through in-depth interviews with 32 regional natural resource professionals in the Driftless Area of the Midwest. We identify feedback loops as primarily ecological (E), socioeconomic (S), or social-ecological (SE) in nature, with -/+ indicating the direction of the relationship for each component connection and feedback loop.