Table 3. Landowner’s individual perceptions (frequency of responses). Total number of responses per question (in Q1, Q2, and Q3) is higher than number of interviewees (20) because each interviewee usually provided more than one response to each question.

Question asked Response Frequency of response
Number %
Q1. What are the main causes of soil erosion at the study area?
(open-ended)
Lack of fertilizer and lack of cereal cultivation
Drought
Cereal cultivation in the past
Disk harrowing, use of rippers and heavy machinery
Heavy rains
Complete shrub clearing in steep terrains
Decreasing tree density
Wildfires
Total
3
5
5
7
6
2
1
4
33
9.1
15.2
15.2
21.2
18.2
6.1
3.0
12.1
100
 
Q2. What are the main causes of cork oak mortality at the study area?(open-ended) Disease
Drought
Wildfires
Complete shrub clearing
Lack of traditional land use with wheat cultivation and livestock (lack of fertilizer and manure)
Pesticides
Disk harrowing and ploughing, shrub clearing with heavy machinery
Less soil water
Old age of cork oak trees
Soil erosion
Pollution
Clayey soils
Inadequate human management
Total
19
10
5
3
12

1
7
1
1
6
5
2
6
78
24.4
12.8
6.4
3.8
15.4

1.3
9.0
1.3
1.3
7.7
6.4
2.6
7.7
100
       
Q3. What are the main causes of wildfires at the study area?
(open-ended)
Arson
Lack of shrub clearing and fuel management
Drought
Lack of firemen capacity: bad coordination among firemen during combat; firemen lack forest fire fighting techniques and have bad knowledge of the terrain
Negligence
Accidents
Total
19
5
3
5


2
2
36
52.8
13.9
8.3
13.9


5.6
5.6
100
       
Q4. How did cork oak natural regeneration change since 1960?
(closed)
Increased
Decreased
Total
16
4
20
80.0
20
100
       
Q5. How did shrubland area change since 1960?
(closed)
Increased
Decreased
No changes
Total
16
1
3
20
80.0
5.0
15.0
100