Table 1. Study site descriptions.

Study site Khawa settlement Kedia settlement
Geographical location 21o21’87.6” S  24o43’80.7” E   26o17’01.3” S  21o22’03.7” E
Vegetation (Olson and Dinterstein 2001) Desert and xeric shrubland Subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Diversity of soil types Low High
Hydrology (Thomas and Shaw 1991) - Lake Xau, Boteti River (Makgadikgadi-Okavango-Zambezi rift depression wetlands complex)
Average annual rainfall between 1995 and 1999 129.8 mm 386.5 mm
History of human settlement Short – first settled in 1974 when a borehole was dug and equipped; previously, ancestral hunting and gathering grounds Long – archaeological evidence of settlement dating back to the Middle and Late Stone Age (Cooke and Paterson 1960, Helgren 1984)
Population (Census 2001) 510 805
Population estimated from sampling (2004/5) 683 1033
Average number of people per household (2004/5) 9 6
Number of people interviewed in survey (number of oral history and trajectory mapping exercises) 58 (9) 40 (8)
Ethnic composition (2004/5) (Sporton and Thomas 2002) Dominated by Batlharo (74%) Dominated by mix of Bakalanga (43%), Basarwa (28%), and Bateti (13%) groups
Primary livelihood options (2004/5) Pastoralism (goats, cattle, sheep, donkey); hunting (legal and illegal); veld product collection; employment (mostly temporary); small business (alcohol sales, leatherworks) Pastoralism (cattle, goats); arable cultivation; employment; small business (alcohol sales, chicken/egg sales, baking, crafts); veld product collection, vegetable gardening; illegal hunting
Primary food sources (2004/5) Wild meat, wild vegetables, destitute rations, livestock, shop-bought foods Cultivated crops (e.g., maize, sorghum, beans, pumpkin, melon), shop-bought foods, livestock, wild vegetables, destitute rations
Water availability (2004/5) Drinking water rationed and supplied by bowser;
livestock water available from open-access community borehole and/or private syndicate borehole
Drinking water available from taps in settlement centre;
livestock water available from private wells and open-access seasonal supplies of surface water