Fig. 1. The figure shows a stylized image of an ideal social network model for ecosystem governance, as discussed in the main text. Scale-crossing brokers are network positions that link otherwise disconnected actor groups which, through their social practices, interact with ecosystem processes at different ecological scales, and through that gain scale-specific and place-specific knowledge and information. At the local scale—and spread out in the physical landscape—local actor groups interact with local green area ecosystems, e.g., cemetery managers or allotment garden associations. On greater spatial scales, actor groups can be municipal ecologists and planners who interact with the urban landscape through GIS and longer-term urban planning instruments.

Fig.1