Table 1. Characteristics of the pine-dominated and mixed forest community types. The mixed communities have larger and older trees, greater basal area, more overstory diversity, and less human use.

Forest characteristic Pine-dominated forest Mixed forest
Location Laizigou and southern Apiladda watersheds Northern and western Apiladda watershed
Distance from villages Near Far
Elevation range (m) 2550–2750 2600–3050
Overstory in sunny locations Pinus yunnanensis Pinus yunnanensis with sub-dominant Alnus ferdinani-obergii
Overstory in shady locations Pinus yunnanensis Co-dominant Alnus ferdinani-obergii, Quercus spp., Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus armandii, and Rhododendron spp.
Range of basal area (m²/h) 2.0–29.0 18.4–48.2
Median basal area (m²/h) 13.2 38.6
Median age of cored Pinus yunnanensis (years) 31.7 44.2
Most common understory species Rhododendron spp., Lyonia ovalifolia, Corylus spp., Rosa spp., Viburnum spp. Rhododendron spp., Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus spp., Pinus yunnanensis., Pteridium spp., Rosa spp., bamboo
Species gathered for firewood Pinus yunnanensis Alnus ferdinani-obergii, Quercus spp.
Species gathered for construction Pinus yunnanensis Pinus yunnanensis, Pinus armandii