Fig. 1. Collective decision-making process levels for participatory water management.

Fig. 1

Note: Organizational decisions on how participatory planning is carried out are made at the co-engineering level. Water management plans specifying management actions for social–ecological systems result from the participatory planning process level. Feedbacks occur between levels, which could include information or knowledge transfers and provide mechanisms by which inter-system interactions and learning may occur. Evaluation may facilitate feedbacks to be effectively integrated into higher-level processes and lead to greater learning and process improvements.