Doctype statement is incorrect. Must be: Ecology and Society: Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

Table 5. Lecture and workshops in the module. L = lecture and Ws = Workshop. All class exercises were collaborative with students working in small groups which usually included students working on the same case studies.
Session Material and exercises
L1 Viewing the world as a complex system 1 Students filled in questionnaire on personal epistemological beliefs, were introduced to dynamic complexity, balancing and reinforcing feedback in systems and causal loop diagrams. Students required to study for class test in next lecture.
L2 Viewing the world as a complex system 2 Class test on understanding causal loop diagrams and identifying balancing and reinforcing feedback in systems. Causes of dynamic complexity and implications explained. Exercise to develop understanding of how simple system behaviour gives rise to complex emergent processes.
L3 Resilience 1: Determinants of ecological resilience Explanation of resilience, stable states, adaptive systems and ‘ball in the bowl metaphor’ and ecological determinants of resilience. Exercise for students to build hypothetical ball-in-bowl model for sustainable tourism. Homework set for identifying reinforcing and balancing feedback in causal loop diagrams.
Ws1 Building influence diagrams Exercise about the sustainability of grazing practices in the Sahel used for practice in identifying variables and making causal linkages between them. Concepts such as system boundaries and causal linkages introduced and the use of Vensim software for building influence maps explained. Students worked in small groups to identify component variables and started making linkages between them. First component of assignment set.
L4 Resilience 2: Determinants of social resilience Importance of adaptive capacity through individuals, institutions, communities and societies. Exercise for students to consider different adaptive strategies that people use to deal with flooding of a housing development on a floodplain.
L5 Adaptive cycles and Panarchy Adaptive cycles and Panarchy explained. Students are required to apply the theory to their case study and identify which phase their case study might be in, what the other phases might have looked like, the scale and the influence of other scales on their case study. Second component of assignment set.
Ws2 Building causal loop diagrams Using Sahel case study, students work collaboratively to build causal loop diagrams of the system. Third component of assignment set.
L6 Leverage Short introduction to concept of leverage points in systems. Account by expert on factors influencing malaria in Africa. Students then required to build a conceptual model of the system and identify the most appropriate points to influence the system.
L7 Reviewing Theory Exercise to review 20 concepts covered in lectures (e.g. panarchy, connectance, system, leverage etc.). Fourth component of assignment set.
Ws3 Application of resilience thinking With small groups, students were required to relate resilience thinking to their case studies. Fifth component of assignment set.
L8 Ecological feedback Explanation of the concept of bringing ecological feedback into sustainable development using case study from Australia. Local and Traditional ecological knowledge discussed, and exercise used on how the technological development influences how societies interact with their environment.
L9 Adaptive management Concept of adaptive management (active and passive explained) using case study on mink eradication in Scotland. Students required to relate the work to their own case studies. Sixth component of assignment set.
L10 Stretch goals, backcasting and scenario planning Introduction of some of the tools for transforming systems towards more sustainable trajectories. Exercise for students to apply them to their own case studies.
L11 Limitations to system’s and resilience thinking and module review Post-test of questionnaire and review of the module, with discussion about the advantages and limitations of resilience thinking.
Submission of the final assignment.