Table 1. Nine broad-scale biodiversity processes, and their spatial surrogates, in the Gouritz planning domain. All spatial boundaries were matched to the closest planning unit boundary. The processes form the corridor network. Further details can be obtained from Lombard et al. (2004).

Process   Spatial component Method of identification Primary GIS layers
P1 Migration and exchange across macroclimatic gradients between inland and coastal biotas, north and south biotas, and upland-lowland biotas, providing dispersal opportunities in the event of environmental change; maintenance of fresh water flow, water quality and quantity, flood control, and estuarine integrity   Riverine corridors All planning units that intersect with the North-South Gouritz River main stem, and its two sources in the north, the Dwyka and Gamka Rivers Rivers
           
P2 and P4 Geographic diversification of plant and animal lineages; migration of biota, especially far-ranging animals such as birds and leopards; maintenance of natural fire regimes (many fynbos species are fire-driven); generation and maintenance of perennial fresh water for the lowlands (the mountains are important water catchment regions to retain surface and underground water sources)   Macroclimatic gradients of west-east mountain chains The west-east corridor across the mountain fynbos complex vegetation types, along the northern mountain chain (P2), and southern mountain chain (P4) Vegetation types
Altitude data
           
P3 Geographic and ecological diversification of plant and animal lineages (there is a high turnover of species within and among these heterogeneous patches); seed dispersal (quartz patches and associated succulent vegetation are hotspots of botanical diversity and occur as stepping-stones along a northwest to southeast gradient in the western Little Karoo, providing a gradient of changing species - they are not continuous, but are linked to one another via processes such as seed dispersal, for example, by leopard tortoises)   Quartz patches and associated succulent vegetation Delineated on base maps at expert workshops Quartz patches (Driver at al. 2003)
           
P5 Maintenance of dispersal and diversification of the distinctive coastal biota, most of which are restricted to this narrow, linear zone; inland movement of marine sands and associated soil development within coastal dunes and sand movement corridors; maintenance of plant succession processes associated with the primary dune systems; coastal wetlands performing flood control and water filtration thereby enhancing estuarine integrity; intact coastal regions provide protection against storm events and sea-level rise in response to global warming   Coastal corridors Coastal vegetation types within a two km coastal corridor from the west to the east of the planning domain. Coastline
Vegetation types
           
P6 Representation of the biological gradients, i.e., north-south, upland-lowland, and east-west macroclimatic gradients, within the biogeographically distinct Gouritz water catchment (intact gradients promote the long-term maintenance of ecological and evolutionary processes such as migration, diversification, and adaptation to climate change along drainage basins that support thicket vegetation).   Thicket corridors The Gouritz-Little Karoo Megaconservancy Network (Rouget et al. 2006). Vegetation types
           
P7 Plant and animal dispersal associated with the biodiversity of the Renosterveld of the coastal forelands (this is not catered for in any of the other corridors - the vegetation of the region is highly fragmented, mainly by wheat fields, but many small patches remain along the hilltops and these enable seasonal migration of some fauna and act as important refugia for geophytes and small succulent plants, many of which are highly localized endemics)   Koppies and associated plant species Western area: vegetation boundaries.
Eastern area: geological boundaries
Vegetation types
Geology types
           
P8 Seasonal movement patterns of pollinators (Cape sugarbirds and orangebreasted sunbirds are specialist pollinators of the Protea and Erica species, respectively, and track seasonal flowering patterns)   Proteaceous and Ericacaeous fynbos pollinator migration routes Proteaceous and Ericacaeous fynbos of uplands and lowlands Vegetation types
Altitude data
           
P9 Plant and animal dispersal associated with the biodiversity of the lowlands; disturbance created by, for example, grysbok and bushbuck movement and feeding, and by molerats tunnelling – these processes are important for the regeneration of fynbos plants; pollination by, for example, nectarivores, which need to be able to fly across ecologically intact areas.   Lowland vegetation Lowland and coastal vegetation, and vegetation associated with east-west bands of geology, and north-south gradients along river courses. Vegetation types
Rivers