Table 2. Aggregated list of alternative land uses (including linear landscape elements), rules for their incorporation in the MS, and main goals.

Alternative land uses Rules Main goals
 
Land parcels
Field aggregation Aggregation of fields with >4% slope to units with >100 m width to facilitate cultivation in slope-parallel direction Reduce variable costs; reduce soil erosion
Organic farming Conversion from conventional to organic farming; reduced tillage; about 15% of today's arable land Reduce fertilizer input; provide habitats for a rich arable vegetation and fauna; reduce the risk of N-input in water
Flowering fields Sowing of flowering vegetation on arable land in accordance with HIAP; random selection from fields <2 ha; about 3% of today's arable land Reduce fertilizer input; provide habitats for fauna; protect the soils
Grassland,
extensive I
Extensive grassland use in accordance with HIAP (e.g., without fertilization, mown once or twice a year); random selection of 75% of the grassland along the river Wetter and all arable land on either wet (gley soils) or dry soils (rankers) Reduce fertilizer input; provide habitats for rich grassland vegetation and fauna
Grassland,
extensive II
Land use as before, but mowing not before July; random selection of 25% of the grassland along the river Wetter Provide nesting habitat for endangered grassland bird species; reduce fertilizer input; provide habitats for rich grassland vegetation and fauna
Apple orchards Conversion of arable land and grassland next to relicts of formerly extensive apple orchards; directed selection of about 0.5% of the total area Improve landscape esthethics; provide habitats for fauna
 
Linear landscape elements
Extensively managed field margins Extensive management of field margins in accordance with HIAP (but only 5 m width); all field margins along farm tracks and fields >2 ha Provide habitats for arable vegetation, other plants, and fauna
Perennial field margins Sowing of flowering perennial plants next to extensively managed field margins; 0.3% of the total area Provide habitat for perennial grassland species and fauna
Hedges Closing gaps in rudimentary hedge network Modest improvement of the existing hedge network as habitats for plants and wildlife

HIAP, Hessian Integrated Agri-environment Scheme; HMULV 2007.