Fig. 3. Simplified examples of social networks.


Note: Actors are represented by shapes and ties as the arrows between them. The type of shape (circle or square) separates the actors into groups based on the attributes of interest (e.g., expertise or ideology). In (A), groups exhibit strong homophily, with more within-group ties than between-group ties. In (B), within-group ties do not significantly outnumber between-group ties, resulting in more opportunities for interaction among groups.