Table 1. Aspects of adaptability.

Framework of rules Ecological knowledge Knowledge and rules
Network A   Rules are in place

Strong rule-obedience is evident

Accepted management rules
 
 

Ecosystem perspective

Science, systematic observations, and local experiments

Common view regarding the status of the ecological system

Continuous rule-making process

Ecological criteria guide the rule-making process
 

Network B Rules are in place

Conflicting views are evident concerning the substance of rules

In general, strong rule-obedience is evident, but rule-breaking behavior among some user groups
 
 
 

Ecosystem perspective

Science, systematic observations, and local experiences

Conflicting views concerning the reliability of ecological knowledge

Skepticism regarding scientific knowledge

Conflicting views regarding the status of the ecological system

Continuous rule-making process

Ecological criteria guide the rule-making process