Table 2. Pilot project uses and their frequency of occurrence within the analyzed WINN pilots

Type of Pilot Pilot Project Use Frequency of occurrence within the WINN projects (n out of 16)
Research Pilot Project Exploration (innovation testing and refining, gaining experience)
16
 
Evaluation (early policy evaluation)
1
 
Management Pilot Project Communication (triggering dialogue, setting up non-existing cooperation)
7
 
Problem Mitigation (resolve practical problems for which tools are lacking)
6
 
Policy Implementation (policy enforcement, creating favourable conditions for implementation)
1
 
Insurance allows for personal failure, small impact, prevent large policy flaws, dealing with uncertainties)
0
 
Political-Entrepreneurial Pilot Project Incentive (creating favourable conditions for society to innovate)
2
 
Political game (hidden intentions e.g. delaying policy decisions, shifting attention, commercial interest in pilot itself)
0
 
Advocacy tool (convincing, demonstrating, accumulating evidence, lobby for its use after the pilot)
4