Table 1. Conceptual contributions and areas of convergence between resilience and vulnerability theory.
SES = social-ecological systems.


Analytical Concept Resilience Vulnerability Contribution to Integration
Integrated social-ecological analyses Move from ecological toward social dimensions within coupled SES; social often considered secondary; From social to coupled SES or human-environment systems; still rare to truly integrate ecological processes. Complementary
       
Approach to system Systems thinking Unit of analysis Complementary
       
Slow versus fast variables of change Core Core (understood as shocks and stresses) Complementary
       
Multiple stressors Multiple variables Core Contribution
       
Scale Core; Physical units from local to global Core: Usually social units from local to global, or geophysical units, e.g., a watershed Complementary
       
Alternate stable states Core Weak, except in terms of livelihood or governance strategies. Contribution
       
Social-ecological feedbacks Core Weak Contribution
       
Thresholds Core (understood primarily as physical) Rare Contribution
       
Adaptation Core Core Complementary
       
Transformation Core Weak, except in terms of livelihoods. Rarely is attention given to the processes enabling or underlying transformation. Contribution
       
Adaptive management Core Core Jointly evolving
       
Perturbations Core Core Complementary
       
Agency Weak Core Contribution
       
Risk reduction Weak Core Contribution
       
Empowerment Weak Core Contribution
       
Learning Core Emerging Jointly evolving
       
Different knowledge systems Core Core Complementary
       
Operationalization, implementation Emerging Advanced (development of tools for decision makers, practitioners) Contribution