Table 4. Trends of principal drivers affecting working and living in European rural regions under two contrasting scenarios.


Categories of drivers Indirect driver Direct driver Muskateer Trend Marketeer Trend
 
Policy
International policy influence of the WTO subsidies, market intervention no EU support of WTO strong EU support of WTO
agricultural production policies subsidies, tariffs, quota no change abolished
rural development subsidies, restrictions, market intervention increased abolished
environmental policy subsidies, restrictions, market intervention strengthened weakened
cohesion policy investment increased abolished
National and regional policies policies for transport, education, health, ICT subsidies, investment, restrictions increase less important
 
Governance
strength of subnational government regional infrastructure expanded little expansion
rural support structures rural services expanded little expansion
political centralization decrease increase
 
Economy
Global economy economic development demand stable GDP growth rapid GDP growth
 
Technology
Technological development R&D spending yield and profit slow increase great increase
Investment in infrastructure infrastructure and knowledge economies access (transport, energy, ICT, knowledge) uniform increase increase in certain regions

↑ = increasing trend, → = stable trend, ↓ = decreasing trend.
ICT = Information and communication technologies