Table 1. Three-stage model in water policy transition.


Stage 1
1993–1996

Emerging protest

Stage 2
1996–2004

Polarization

Stage 3
2004 onwards

Symptoms of change

Policy discourse Economic development and modernization
Territorial and social solidarity
Efficiency
Economic development
Territorial solidarity
Sustainability
Rational use of water

Policy approach

Supply-based

Market and supply-based

Alternative regulation of water supply

Main policy output

1993–1995
Draft Project of National Water Plan

2001
National Water Plan

2004
Suppression of the Ebro transfers
AGUA program†
WFD adaptation‡

Main policy interventions

Large hydrological infrastructures:
inter-basin transfers and about 150 dams

Large hydrological infrastructures:
inter-basin transfers
(Ebro) and about 120 dams

Planning of 105 interventions including desalinization plants

Policy environment

Protest at the traditional supply approach

Market efficiency accepted
but protest at the traditional supply approach

Alternative supply approach partly accepted
† Actions for Water Use and Management program
‡ Water Framework Directive