Table 3. Findings on water policy transitions, policy entrepreneurs, and change strategies: lessons learned.

On patterns of change
1 New policy ideas (paradigms, discourses, or ways of knowing) do not replace the “old” ones, rather they are placed alongside them or are integrated with them.
2 After new policies have been adopted, those who have an interest in maintaining the status quo have ample opportunities to delay or frustrate policy implementation.
On policy entrepreneurs
3 Policy entrepreneurs can be found anywhere, but what they have in common is a good reputation within their respective communities, good networking skills, and perseverance.
4 Successful entrepreneurship often is collective entrepreneurship in which individuals play complementary roles.
On strategies (and institutions)
5 A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies makes most transitions happen, and their relative importance depends largely on the particular institutional context or opportunity structure.
6 Successful (individual or collective) entrepreneurs are able to balance advocacy and brokerage strategies.
7 Successful policy entrepreneurs build networks across different ways of knowing water (different meanings).
8 Successful policy entrepreneurs use narratives to frame issues strategically and thereby justify change and attract supporters.
9 Successful policy entrepreneurs anticipate windows of opportunity by developing and testing attractive policy alternatives and demonstrating their feasibility.
10 Successful policy entrepreneurs employ strategies of venue manipulation and venue-shopping, and/or create new venues to be able to insert new ideas into decision-making processes.
11 Successful policy entrepreneurs manage to institutionalize new ideas (discourses, images, or ways of knowing), and in this way create barriers to future change.
12 Successful policy entrepreneurs have a full and thorough knowledge of the institutional system they are working in and know how to use that system.