Table 2. Windows of opportunity arising in the cases studied.

A. Problem windows

Country Problem window analyzed
Mexico Asian financial crisis
China Yangtze River flood 1998
Thailand Financial crisis 1997–98
Upper Ping River flood 2005
Indonesia Financial crisis 1997–98
Severe drought caused by El Niño
Australia Severe drought 1990s
Hungary Tisza River flood 1998, 2001, and 2006
Cyanide spill Tisza River 2000
Turkey Economic crisis of the 1980s
Germany Rhine River flood 1993 and 1995
Elbe and Donau River floods 2002
The Netherlands Sea flood 1953
(Near) Rhine river floods 1993 and 1995
Extreme rainfall 1996 and 1998

B. Political windows

Country Political window analyzed
United States Appointment of Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt 1993
Mexico Regime change 1990s
Thailand Regime changes 1991, 1997, and 2006
Indonesia Regime change 1998
South Africa Regime change 1994
Hungary Elections 2002 and 2006
Spain Elections 1996 and 2004
Turkey Political crisis of the 1980s
The Netherlands Elections 1973