Table 1. Rule for distinguishing stakeholders involved in a MF initiative according to level of collaboration.


Stakeholder category Type of participation Type of participation
(Pretty 1995)
Ladder of community participation
(Guaraldo Choguill 1996)
Ladder of citizen participation (Arnstein 1969)
Group 1 Formalized participation through foundation or society Self-mobilization
Interactive
Empowerment
Partnership
Partnership
Joint mgmt board
Group 2 Participation in projects or activities managed or co-managed by the MF initiative Functional
Material incentives
Conciliation Cooperation
Group 3 Collaboration in stakeholder projects (active or passive) to continuous communication and information Consultation
Information giving
Passive
Dissimulation
Diplomacy
Informing
Conspiracy
Self-management
Advisory committee
Communication
Consultation
Information