APPENDIX 1. The questions for each of the four characteristics describing participatory modeling with mean scores by case study.

Value of participatory modeling in terms of:
Malinau
Wasa Amenfi
TNS†
Chilimo
Subtropical Thicket Biome
Namaqualand
Mean scores
1. Model building process
1. understanding/
conceptualization of system
4
4
4
5
3
4
4.3
2. getting a common understanding of problems at hand
4
4
4
4
1
4
3.7
3. building consensus on way forward
4
4
4
5
1
4
3.6
4. creating awareness of different viewpoints
4
4
4
5
2
3
3.9
5. enhancing out-of-discipline thinking
4
4
4
5
4
5
4.2
6. focusing on most relevant problems
4
3
3
4
2
4
3.5
Mean score "process"
4.1
3.8
4.1
4.4
2.1
3.6
3.9
 
2. Model structure
1. the user-friendliness of the Stella software
4
4
3
4
4
4
3.7
2. the ease to run or alter the model
3
4
3
3
2
2
3.0
3. the sense of ownership of model
4
4
4
4
4
3
3.6
4. the degree to which the model approaches reality
3
3
4
4
2
4
3.3
5. the completeness of the model
4
3
4
3
2
4
3.6
6. capturing complexity
4
3
4
4
3
3
3.6
Mean score "structure"
3.4
3.6
3.7
3.5
2.6
3.2
3.5
 
3. Model outputs
1. the degree to which model outputs are believable
3 3
4
4
3
4
3.3
2. identifying best options
for impact (optimization)
5
3
4
4
1
4
3.5
3. formulation of strategy
4
4
3
4
2
3
3.3
4. supporting decision making
4
3
3
4
1
3
3.0
5. supporting policy formulation
4
4
4
5
2
3
4.0
6. communicating strategy
4
4
3
4
1
3
3.4
Mean score "outputs"
3.9
3.6
3.7
4.1
1.5
3.0
3.5
 
4. Impact after modeling

1. improving performance of interventions
4
3
3
3
2
2
2.9
2. actual changing the focus of interventions
4
4
3
4
1
2
3.1
3. actual changing the strategy
4
3
2
4
1
3
2.9
4. actual use in policy formulation
4
4
1
4
2
2
2.6
5. actual use to communicate strategy
4
3
3
4
1
2
3.2
Mean score "impact"
4.1
3.3
2.9
3.8
1.3
2.1
3.1
† Tri National de la Sangha (TNS), which stretches between Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo