Table 1. Comparative applicability of non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) with other monitoring methods for addressing specific research objectives related to animal movement at wildlife crossing structures and population connectivity across roads. GPS = global positioning system. X = best method, x = suitable method.

Monitoring method
Research objectives Track pads Remote
cameras
NGS
sampling
Radio-
telemetry/
GPS collars
Species identification X X x x
Direction of travel X X X
Individual identification X x
Sex determination X x
Detection of juveniles using crossings with mother x X X x
Species-level spatial patterns (preference for crossing types by species) X X x x
Species-level temporal patterns (annual and seasonal use by species) X X x x
Individual-level general spatial patterns (preference for crossing types by individuals) X X
Individual-level general temporal patterns (annual and seasonal use by individuals) X X
Individual-level fine-scale spatial use (how are crossings incorporated into home-range movements) X
Individual-level fine-scale temporal use (when do individuals incorporate crossings into movements) X
Population-level spatial patterns (context for crossing type preferences) x X
Population-level temporal patterns (context for annual and seasonal use) x X
Detection of long-distance disperser at crossings X
Estimate relationships and parentage of individuals using crossings X x
Estimate change in gene flow due to presence of crossings X x
Estimate change in population survival due to presence of crossings X
Estimate change in population fecundity due to presence of crossings X