Fig. 8. Phase space showing environmental benefits Be as a function of percent external phosphorus load reduction (LR) with no mussels (MEF = 1.00, MCF = 1.00, blue) and with added mussel excretory and consumptive effects at intermediate (MEF = 1.50, MCF = 1.25, red) and high (MEF = 2.00, MCF = 1.25, green) levels for a Sandusky system with restored wetlands.

Note: Mussel effects were held constant over the 50 simulation yrs. Individual data points (indicated by various symbols) show each of the 50 simulation yrs. Dotted lines illustrate the systemís trajectory with time. In each case, the system began at LR = 0 and management increased with time until stakeholder compromise (i.e., social–ecological equilibrium) was achieved. SES attractors for the various wetland restoration simulations are labeled with “X” in bold. Comparable attractors for mussel simulations without wetland restoration are shown as “O 1.0,“ “O 1.5, ” and “O 2.0” for final MEF = 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00, respectively (same points shown in Fig. 4).