Fig. 6. Five-yr period mean total net benefits (Bnet) as a function of percent external phosphorus load reduction (LR) with no mussels (MEF = 1.00 and MCF = 1.00) and with mussel excretory and consumptive effects (MEF > 1.00 and MCF = 1.25) for simulations both without (solid lines) and with (dashed lines) wetland restoration.

Note: For these results, we ran the model with LR as a forcing function to illustrate the full range of Bnet possible at LR between 0% and > 60% for each case. In all cases without wetland restoration, social–ecological equilibrium occurred at values of LR (33%, 39% and 53% for MEF = 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00, respectively; see Fig. 4) that were suboptimal in terms of Bnet. We also observed suboptimal compromises for simulations including wetland restoration, with the exception of the case where MEF = 2.00 (LR at social–ecological equilibrium = 26%, 33%, and 46% for MEF = 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00, respectively; see Fig. 8).