Fig. 5. Total net (green), production (red), and environmental (blue) benefits and management level (black) for simulations without mussels (MEF = 1.00 and MCF = 1.00; top panel) and with increased mussel excretory effects (MEF > 1.00) and added mussel consumptive effects (MCF > 1.00).

Note: For “constant” simulations, mussel effects were included from yr 1 and remained constant over the 50-yr simulation period. For “gradual” simulations, the model simulated the first 30 yrs without mussels, a gradual mussel invasion from yrs 30–40, and then constant mussel effects until yr 50. For “wetland” simulations, effects of wetland restoration were included and mussel effects were included from yr 1 and remained constant over the 50-yr simulation period.