APPENDIX 2. QUOTATIONS


Verbal quotations from the interviews translated from the Spanish original by Uta Berghöfer and Ricardo Rozzi.

Quotation 1
A woman from the Yaghan Community (2004)
You have to know this: because .... My mum, she knew which tree she had to take the bark off for making canoes. We had no idea. And then, when you get more and more interested in the topic, you start learning and asking more. With Marina [name changed] from the Omora Foundation, it was with her that we went into the field. At first we didn’t pay any attention to the branches, the trees, the trunks, but there we learnt a lot of things. (...) And with my mum, we normally accompanied her to look for things, for, for the bark of the tree. (...) But we took the bark off any tree, even though it is not just from any old tree that you can take the bark. (...) I don’t know why our parents did not teach us or want us to learn the Yaghan language. Surely because they were very much discriminated against because of their... they were discriminated against for how they talked, and therefore they decided to forget about everything. I like to think about it in this way instead of thinking that it was a personal choice like “Ah, I don’t want to speak my language”. I imagine that it has to be for this reason, because we already went to school, we never knew that...I never heard my mum talking to other people in Yaghan.
Quotation 2
A Yaghan father and his daughter (2004)
Question: “'Which places have you been to in the region?
Father: “In this region? Umm, I have been everywhere, my dear.”
Question: “Even to the interior of the Island?”
Father: “Yes, to the middle of the Island, yes.., I have been everywhere. I have seen the whole interior of the Island.”
Daughter: “I do not know a lot of the area. I know from Eugenia to Navarino [the range of the only road along the North coast] and ...Button and Wulaia [historical place on the West coast].
Quotation 3
A Yaghan fisherman, who spent his childhood at the boarding school (2005)

“How did you learn about birds for example?”
“From elder people, from the natives, while at sea, (...) and later on, I finished learning about them when I went to stay with my father, on the beach.”

Quotation 4
A woman from an old settler family, born in the region (2004)

“I got to know all the places when I was a child. I know for example all the places where the biggest calafates [Berberis buxifolia] grow, where you can find more wild strawberries, where the dihueñes [Cyttaria darwinii] are, and where they grow more yellow than in other places.”

Quotation 5
A resident, who has been living in the Region for eight years and working in the tourism sector (2004)

“I like reading very much, and in particular I like reading about the places where I live or that I know, especially everything of this kind. Sometimes it doesn’t matter if it’s a novel or a story, but it has to do with... it has to describe the landscape that I know or where I have been”

Quotation 6
A woman whose husband works for the navy (2004)

“How do you know about the Caiquén [Chloëphaga picta picta]?”
“Because I know it from television, from a magazine, from a brochure when I was in Ushuaia, there was also the Caiquén in it. (...) [I know about animals] from television, from the Discovery Channel. The only thing I ever watch is about animals.”

Quotation 7
A settler from a Navy family, who came to the region at the age of five (2004)

“Before, when I owned a mini-market, I spent the whole day in the store, ...the store, ...the store. I had zero contact with nature. When I went outside, I walked a bit but did nothing else. Now I have another vision. It’s important. Now that I´m more into tourism I can appreciate more.”

Quotation 8
A Yaghan woman recounts her childhood (2004)
I know all the places, because I used to accompany my father a lot, to all those places they went for sheep-shearing. And we always went with him. (...) About five years, working with sheep and cattle. (...) I was also a fisher-woman and went fishing. I used to go out in search of centolla. I always went with my dad.. we went off fishing. (...) In the countryside we always raised animals.. sheep, because at that time the majority of people used to raise sheep.
Quotation 9
A woman from an old settler family (2004)
I always liked the guajatana [Nycticorax nycticorax obscurus]. Because it is a lonely bird, you never see it with a partner, it is always on its own. And at night it squawks. And I always used to say “Hey, you are lonelier than a guajatana’ (...) A bird that is always around. I like it. (...) It is an odd bird to look at, it has charisma some how, I don’t know. Huairavo is the scientific name. I know it as the Guajatana, by its Yaghan name, as my dad used to call it.
Quotation 10
A wife of a navy member (2004)

“I like the avocado tree, because in the fifth region, everyone in my family grows avocados, I like the avocado tree, and I also like avocadoes.”

Quotation 11
A resident from the Yaghan community (2005)
I like the horse. (...) What happens is that if you grew up in the country, suddenly the horse becomes man’s best friend in the country. I think that in the countryside and not just in the countryside it should be like that. Even though in the city the horse is not a means of transportation, not at all. The horse was made for man. And man at the same time was made for cohabiting with the horse.
Quotation 12
A recent settler (2004)

“I like the sea, definitely. Yes, any landscape that is related to the sea. I have always been very close to the sea. I like it very much.”

Quotation 13
A woman from a settler family (2004)

“I have something of a close connection with nature. I love it. If I could, I would have a farm with all the things that go with it. I would love to live like that. In a city, no, no I wouldn’t like that. I’m more from the country.”

Quotation 14
A woman living temporarily in the region (2004)

“I am water and vegetation. I love to be close to a river, a lake...the sea. And if you add vegetation to that, I’m very happy.”

Quotation 15
A navy soldier (2005)

“My grandmother had a farm to the south of Valdivia and during vacations they sent us, all the cousins, there. We used to get up early to milk the cows, to see the animals, to take the dogs out, to go and look for the chickens, to go into the city to fetch the water (...). So, I have plenty of contact with nature.”

Quotation 16
A navy soldier (2005)

“If I had to make a choice, then I really like the eighth region. On the one hand I’m from there and on the other hand you have... it is a big city [Concepción] and all, but there are still lots of places where you can go out and see a lot of vegetation, landscapes, and nice places.”

Quotation 17
A woman living in the region for more than 40 years (2004)

“I love nature. Well, I’m actually from the countryside, but the countryside in the central zone of Chile”

Quotation 18
A fisherman from a settler family born in the region (2006)

“I just live my life according to the sea.”

Quotation 19
A woman temporarily living in the region (2005)
In my personal experience, when I’m in the North [of Chile], two things happen to me: one is that I do not go out a lot, except to see my family, and to go to the countryside, but as it always was. I never go out with that vision of a person coming from somewhere else “Oh how nice!” Like people do coming here. In my case it is because it is something that I have always known, maybe it doesn’t have the same enchantment that it had the first time. But it happens to me when I am here: the landscape is different, it seems to be much more impressive, more grandiose, I don’t know: the mountains are very high, everything is green, and that’s what I like.
Quotation 20
A fisherman from the Yaghan community (2005)
What is valuable here, on Navarino Island, or what attracts my attention.. nothing really, that is because I’m from here.... maybe if I went somewhere else and you asked me about it, then I would probably say ‘this or that stands out,’ but here on this Island I can’t.
And in the surrounding area?
Well, I know everything. For tourists from outside, there are many things that they would like, many places.
Quotation 21
A fisherman from a settler family born in the region (2006)

“I don’t know if it [Centolla: King crab] is overexploited. I think the animal is very intelligent. Who knows, maybe it is more intelligent than we are. If it sees all the traps, a lot of traps, it hides itself. I think it could be like that. Really.”

Quotation 22
A recent resident (2004)
Do you see any threats to nature in this region?
Yes, definitively. Yes. Look, there are problems with the forest and we have problems with the Centolla [King crab] (...) I always make predictions and I say: from now on in twenty years, what will have come of Williams? There will be no centolla, first of all. And they will have to do something in order to protect the forest, and birds and everything that’s in the forest. Because if they continue to allow the trees to be felled, they will have to create places for its preservation, which will not be touched. If not, there won’t be any left in twenty years time.
Quotation 23
A wife of a navy soldier (2004)

“We have to protect it, the little bit of nature that is left. It is we who have destroyed nature, and in the long run it is we who will be the criminals on this Earth.”

Quotation 24
A more recent resident working temporarily for the civil service (2005)

“I imagine people living in peace and tranquility, who enjoy this value, which is very rare indeed in the big cities. (...) People who are very proud of being able to recount.”

Quotation 25
A woman who has been resident in Puerto Williams for eight years (2004)

“First, I would protect the forests, because I feel worried thinking that it is us, who is destroying the forest. (...) Because everybody that I talk to, the people that are coming here, the first thing they say is: this is beautiful, the trees, the green.. Everybody is looking for what we are destroying and that is terrible.”

Quotation 26
A woman who has been resident in Puerto Williams for 18 years (2004)
For me it would be horrible if there was a building, or a five star hotel in the middle of the island. Or a McDonalds on the Cape Horn, for example. I think we have to leave such things alone. Because for me it would be a form of aggression. Absolutely. For the environment and for us. Because we decided to live here for a particular reason. I think it would be really aggressive to install traffic lights or escalators. Or if they erected a completely gray block building. I think it would be terribly violent. I wouldn’t like that.
Quotation 27
A resident from an old settler family
How did you learn about the plants, the animals, about nature?
From my dad. He taught me everything that I know today.
He told you?
No, I worked with him. I always accompanied him when he worked.
Quotation 28
A fisherman who came to the region at the age of two (2005)
Is there any plant, animal, or bird that is important for you on this island?
Look, I don’t know... Specifically I couldn’t tell you, but personally, as if...not that I do not attach some importance to, but ....I don’t know, I never touch these topics like: I value this, or I study that...But, no, like you...personally I would like it if this natural environment does not change. In summer, for example, the wild strawberries, the calafates [Berberis buxifolia].
Quotation 29
A fisherman who came to the region at the age of two (2005)
If you could protect any plant, animal, bird or place on Navarino Island, what would you like to protect?
What would I like to protect, if I really could?...I’m so accustomed to, to this, to this environment/these surroundings of, of life, of seeing these animals, of seeing, of seeing the birds...
Quotation 30
A fisherman from a settler family born in the region (2006)

“The sea is something beautiful that maltreats us a lot, that chastises us a lot. But it also gives us benefits.”

Quotation 31
A fisherman from the Yaghan community (2005)

“The nicest ones could be the seagulls, because they accompany you. There are some very small seagulls; they look like seagulls, which have a red bill. They are really nice, like the seagull but smaller. When you are fishing they stay by your side.”

Quotation 32
A woman who has been living in the region for 2 years but spent her childhood in the Atacama desert (2005)
The truth is that nature is, well, my contact with nature has been something that one does not understand... the bare desert, the most real desert in the world.
And this is not nature for you?
I don’t know, but it is not ... I felt it was like part of... of normal life, if you understand? When I studied nature, that was, when I came across this. The South [of Chile] I always got to know very fast, and even though it was very fast, it was like an encounter, I don’t know, with the green, the exuberant, exuberant because, well there it is also exuberant in its immeasurableness. When we talk about nature, we talk about this, and not about the bareness, the stones, the...
You lived there when you were a child?
Yes, sure, and, for example, when we went to school in the morning, we climbed down a canyon, if you didn’t you would’ve had to have gone on a major detour. But you had to climb a real canyon. Then you passed across a group of guanacos [Lama guanicoe], then you passed a river frozen with ice, after walking another kilometer, you climbed up next to some plantations and then reached the school. And the way back again.... Sometimes you spent the whole day getting to school, because you came across some fruits, or you was kept by the river where you could do some ice skating, or you saw a little animal, or the donkey, or would watch the animals grazing.... A life...sure, I was...but I never thought about my relationship with nature....the first time that I thought about my relationship with nature, do you understand? Because, sure, you know how to pick a fruit without getting thorns stuck in you, I don’t know, just to give an example. (...) That I go to the mountains here, like in a voluntary way, no, if I have to go to the mountains in order to do something, to look for water, to look for something....my relationship is somehow more practical. It is more like a necessity, more like, I don’t know if I can call it natural, I don’t know. But, well, the fact that I go for a walk, well when I had to cross eight kilometers of desert it was because I was in a village and we lived there and there wasn’t any other way other than walking. And you couldn’t distinguish anything, but you had to distinguish the colors in order not to walk past the place where you lived, because the houses made of loam are all the same color like the soil. So you can’t see the ground but I always saw it very clearly. You go out of the house and you know how to get back, but I would never go out just to experience walking in the naked desert, no! You have to do it and you just go, if you know what I mean? In this sense.
Quotation 33
A fisherman born in the region (2006)
Well, you learn with experience as the years go by. Because, suddenly you see something you don’t know, but the elder fishermen you get to know, they will teach you how to distinguish between the species. It is the only way to learn. You do not study this, in fact, if you do not know something you will go and talk over there, in the cove of the fishermen and you say ‘Hey listen, I have seen this, and it looked like this’ and then they will tell you what it is called. Well, there are lots of species you do not know and they keep on appearing. (...) So, you never finish learning. The sea is endless. There are lots of things in the sea.”
Quotation 34
A fisherman from the Yaghan community (2004)

“I have worked ...well, I have worked nearly everywhere. Windhond, Yendegaia, Navarino, Douglas and Lennox, Nueva, Picton, everywhere... I really like everything here. Everything, everything... because I think that in other places I could not be...I would not feel comfortable in another place.”

Quotation 35
The wife of a n navy soldier (2004)

“Well, I don’t know anything about the names. I can only see that there are different forms of green, different leaves (...) but more than that, no idea.”

Quotation 36
The wife of a navy soldier (2004)

“It’s a little, I do not know, because I stay more in the house, I don’t go out a lot.”

Quotation 37
A woman living temporarily in Puerto Williams (2005)

In the kindergarten they teach the children like this: very formal. Like: yes, you do it right. With my grandmother or my mother they would say to me: ‘try this, this is cochayuyo (Durvillaea antarctica) [edible algae].’ But now it is more formal, more intellectual, like a concept. More theoretical rather than doing it yourself.

Quotation 38
A woman from the Yaghan community (2004)
Well, now, it is becoming a bit more complicated because the national forest service (CONAF) asks you to have a permit, or they tell you where you are allowed to take the bark from. These things seem horrible to me. But we do not follow those rules, because we are not destroying the trees. Nor do we take the bark from all of the trees. And because anyway, in the past there has never been an ecological disaster because of the Yaghans. It is not our fault. For example, the relationships, the relationship that the Yaghans had with nature was very different, because... for me that would have been perfect, well, I would have loved to have been there (....) For me, the birds, in the past the birds were once human beings, a Yaghan legend says. For me they are important, because they are like persons.
Quotation 39
A woman from the Yaghan community (2004)
I would like it to be a normal place, and now I don’t see it as too bad, well.... it is not too crowded. But I imagine it as a place surrounded by culture, and aware of what we have. I think that here, people do not make use of all the things that we have. All the products from the sea, all the products that we could use, I don’t know. To elaborate, but to concentrate on this same place. Not to focus outwards, or for other people to come here: really, that is what I fear, the invasion. I would love it if the same people that live here could..work with what is here and live their whole life here, as natural as possible. And for us, as the Yaghan community, I don’t know how many Yaghan, but at least those who are concerned about the preservation of our culture. I think that we could do much more. And I see a lot of work to be done there..., I see the need for bringing back and resurrecting the Yaghan world a little bit. Resurrecting it through the rejuvenation of our language, and above all, through handicrafts, and through being able to say that we are Yaghans. Because we are different and yes, we know and value what is here. I think this is what I see below the surface. From those of us who are working. Yes, I believe that we could recount our history. I think it should be us who are recounting and and showing our history.
Quotation 40
A woman from the Yaghan community (2004)
What do you like about life on Navarino Island?
The nonurbanization. I think that is what I like about the island; although now the city is growing day by day and there are more cars, and more telephones, and more... but what I like about the island is that... well, it is an island. You see, an island is like moving away a bit from the global world. That is what I like, and I wish it could be even more like that. Less inhabited, but anyway.
Quotation 41
A farmer from the Yaghan community (2005)

“For me it is important: I look after the land, I make my living from it. I take care of it. I do not abuse it and I do not overexploit it in any way.”

Quotation 42
A discussion between two brothers who have been residents of the island for 8 years (2004)
First brother: When we walk in the mountains, we can see beaver dams.
Second brother: But the beaver dam is not natural.
First brother: Is not natural?
Second brother: Because it was built by the beavers.
First brother: But, well, it is also an animal. The only difference is that it has been introduced.
Second brother: I think that if you say natural, I think that natural is what has been made by nature, without intervention. Because if it has been made by the beaver...
First brother: Isn’t the beaver a part of nature?
Second brother: I think that the beaver...
First brother: It is not from here.
Second brother: It is not from here, humans brought the beaver with them and as they did it, so then there is the human component involved in it.
Quotation 43
A man from a settler family (2004)

“I like the beaver because he came to settle down and he is from here, he is from [Puerto] Williams. He is like we are. We came to settle down and now they will not remove take us out any more.”

Quotation 44
A man from a settler family (2004)
The animals I like? Despite the fact that nobody likes him, the one I like most is the beaver. It is an impressive animal. Many people don’t like beavers for the ecological damage they have caused here. But for what I have seen: with a friend of mine we destructed some of the beaver dams, took of the trunks and everything. That happened at six o’ clock in the afternoon, and already the next day at eight in the morning they had their dam reconstructed. The work they are doing, really great. Well, it would be a pity, but from the environmental perspective it has to be done, they have to be eliminated. But the work they are doing is really admirable, yes.
Quotation 45
A fisherman from a settler family born in the region
Well, I think that the area should be divided, into sectors, and it should be said: This sector, these waters here will not be touched over the next two or three years. So, we will work from here to there. And if the resource is scarce, I think that the industries will have to raise the funds in order to pay more for the small amount that comes out. Do you understand? So, if you let the area recover for three years there and then after three years you go back to work there then that will be more sustainable for all those who work there. (...) It would be a good idea to divide the area.